Stepwise multiple linear regression applied to study the influence of pedestrian volumes according to environmental characteristics

  1. Juan Carlos Gómez Sánchez
  2. María Victoria de la Fuente Aragón
  3. Lorenzo Ros McDonnell
Dirección y organización: Revista de dirección, organización y administración de empresas

ISSN: 1132-175X

Year of publication: 2021

Issue: 75

Pages: 52-61

Type: Article

DOI: 10.37610/DYO.V0I75.609 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openOpen access editor

More publications in: Dirección y organización: Revista de dirección, organización y administración de empresas


Since the start of the 1990s, the evolution of socio-economic, local and regional factors in western society has placed pedestrians at the focal point of urban mobility plans until the present-day. This comes over in the many research works conducted in this area, which evidence the need to lay the foundations of the relation between urban planning and people’s health. Despite many methodologies being proposed to analyse this relation, those that strike a balance between the pedestrial volume in an area and its environmental characteristics provide the best results, but start with multivariable models that are not easy to calculate. This article aims to collect and reduce those variables that significantly affect population movements depending on the study area’s commercial level. Of all the different existing mathematical models, stepwise linear regression was chosen to do this. Finally, the present work concludes that connectivity and urban furnishing in prime areas, the presence of bars and offices in secondary areas and connectivity, residential density and mixed-use zones in tertiary areas are key factors that should be considered when planning the studied areas in the future

Bibliographic References

  • Alho, A., De-Abreu, J. (2015). Utilizing urban form characteristics in urban logistics analysis: a case study in Lisbon, Portugal. Journal of Transport Geography, 42, 57-71.
  • Anselin, L. (2006). Spatial Regression. University of Illinois Press. Nueva York.
  • Boarnet, M.G., Greenwald, M., McMillan, T.E. (2008). Walking, Urban Design, and Health Toward a Costbenefit. Analysis Framework. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 27, 341-358.
  • Calthorpe, P. (1993), The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community, and the American Dream. Princeton Architectural Press.
  • Cerin, E., Macfariane, D., Sit, C.H. (2013). Effects of Built Environment on Walking among Hong Kong Older Adults. Hong Kong Medical Journal, 19(4), 39-41.
  • Cervero, R., Kockelman, K. (1997). Travel Demand and the 3Ds: Density, Diversity and Design. Transportation Research D, 2(3), 199-219.
  • Cho, G.H., Rodríguez, D.A. (2014). Location or design? Associations between neighborhood location, built environment and walking. Urban Studies, 1 (20).
  • Cho, G.H., Rodríguez, D.A. (2015). Neighborhood design, neighborhood location, and three types of walking: results from the Washington DC area. Environment and Planning, 42.
  • Ewing, R., Greenwald, M.J., Zhang, M. (2009). Measuring the Impact of Urban Form and Transit Access on Mixed Use Site Trip Generation Rates - Portland Pilot Study. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
  • Ewing, R., Cervero, R. (2001). Travel and the built environment: A synthesis. J. Transp. Res. Board, 1780, 87–114.
  • Ewing, R., Cervero, R. (2010). Travel and the built environment: a meta-analysis. Journal of the American Planning Association, 76, 265‒294.
  • Ewing, R., Clemente, O. (2013). Measuring Urban Design: Metrics for Livable Places; Island Press: Washington, DC, USA.
  • Fang, K., Wang, X., Chen, L., Zhang, Z., Furuya, N. (2019). Research on the correlation between pedestrian density and street spatial characteristics of commercial blocks in downtown area: a case study on Shanghai Tianzifang. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 18 (3), 233-246.
  • Feuillet, T., Salze, P., Charreire, H. (2016). Built Environment in Local Relation with Walking: Why Here and Not There?. Journal of Transport & Health, 12(4).
  • Frank, L.D., Sallis, J.F., Conway, T.L. (2006). Many Pathways to Health: Associations between Neighborhood Walkability and Active Transportation. Journal of the American Planning Association, 72, 75-87.
  • Giles-Corti, B., Donovan, R.J. (2002). The relative influence of individual, social and physical environment determinants of physical activity. Social Science & Medicine, 54, 1793–1812.
  • Gómez, J.C., de la Fuente, M.V., Ros, L. (2019). Characterization of pedestrian and mixed streets and its influence in freight activities. 15th Annual International Bata Conference for Ph.D.
  • Gómez, J.C., de la Fuente, M.V., Ros, L. (2020). Análisis del comportamiento de repartidores logísticos en zonas peatonales. Dirección y Organización, 71, 14-30.
  • Hamidi, S., Moazzeni, S. (2019). Examining the Relationship between Urban Design Qualities and Walking Behavior: Empirical Evidence from Dallas, TX. Sustainability, 11, 2720
  • Handy, S. (1993). Regional Versus Local Accessibility: Implications for Non-work Travel. Transportation Research Record, 1400.
  • Handy, S. L. (1996). Urban form and pedestrian choices: Study of Austin neighborhoods. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1552, 135–144.
  • Handy, S., Boarnet, M., Ewing, R., Killingsworth, M. (2002). How the Built Environment Affects Physical Activity. Views from Urban Planning. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23, 64-73.
  • Handy, S., Mokhtarian, P. (2008). Growing Cooler: The Evidence on Urban Development and Climate Change. Urban Land Institute: Washington, DC, USA, 2008.
  • Jacobs, J. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Vintage. Nueva York.
  • Kumar, K., Ross, W. (2006). Effects of pedestrianization on the commercial and retail areas: study in Khao San road, Bangkok. World Transport Policy & Practice, 13.
  • Muñuzuri, J., Onieva, L., Cortes, P. y Guadix, J. (2016). Gestión pública de la logística urbana de mercancías. Una norma, múltiples necesidades. Economía Industrial, 400, 21–28.
  • Næss, P. (2005). Residential location affects travel behavior – But how and why? The case of Copenhagen metropolitan area. Progress in Planning, 63(2), 167–257.
  • Oakes, J.M., Forsyth, A., Schmitz, K.H. (2007). The effects of neighborhood density and street connectivity on walking behavior: The Twin Cities walking study. Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations, 4(16).
  • Palomares, B. (2015). Marketing en el punto de venta. ESIC Editorial, Madrid.
  • Park, D., D. Nakagawa, R. Matsunaka, T. (2012). Factor Structure Which Makes Streets Vibrant with People— Based on Field Survey of Kyoto, Seoul and Florence. Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers Ser. 68 (5).
  • Pikora, T., Giles-Corti, B., Bull, F. (2003). Developing a framework for assessment of the environmental determinants of walking and cycling. Social Science & Medicine, 56(8), 1693-1703
  • Reisi, M., Ahmadi, M., Aye, L. (2019). Local walkability index: assessing built environment influence on walking. Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series, 46, 7–21.
  • Ros-McDonnell, L., De-la-Fuente, M.V., Szander, N., RosMcDonnell, D. (2016). A study of the walkability impact in a compact Mediterranean city. International Joint Conference - CIO-ICIEOM-IIE-AIM (IJC 2016). San Sebastián, Spain.
  • Saelens, B., Sallis, J., Black, J., Chen, D. (2003) Neighborhood-Based Differences in Physical Activity: An Environment Scale Evaluation. American Journal of Public Health, 93(9).
  • Salom, J., Carrasco, J.M., Puebla, A. (2014). Delimitation and characterization of new urban spaces in Valencia. Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles, 64, 127-149.
  • Sastreb, A., Gamo, A.M., Gaztelu, T. (2013). Economic Impact of Pedestrianisation in Historic Urban Centre, the Valdemoro Case – Study (Spain). Procedia. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 104(2013),737 – 745.
  • Song, Y., Knaap, G. (2007). “Quantitative classification of neighborhoods: the neighbourhoods of new singlefamily homes in the Portland Metropolitan Area”. Journal of Urban Design, 12.
  • Sugie, L., Hyungun, S., Ayoung, W. (2009). The Spatial Variations of Relationship between Built Environment and Pedestrian Volume: Focused on the 2009 Seoul Pedestrian Flow Survey in Korea. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 16(1).
  • Sung, H., Lee, S. (2015), Residential Built Environment and Walking Activity: Empirical Evidence of Jane Jacobs' Urban Vitality, Transportation Research: Part D, 41, 318-329.