Desalcoholización de vinos mediante destilación en columna de conos rotatorios (spinning cone columna)calidad aromática y nutracéutica del vino desalcoholizado

Dirigée par:
  1. Antonio López Gómez Directeur
  2. Fulgencio Marín Iniesta Co-directeur/trice

Université de défendre: Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena

Fecha de defensa: 20 juillet 2009

  1. Francisco Artés Calero President
  2. Asunción Iguaz Gaínza Secrétaire
  3. Domingo Saura López Rapporteur
  4. Remedios Marín Arroyo Rapporteur
  5. Cristina Arroqui Vidaurreta Rapporteur
  1. Ingeniería Agronómica

Type: Thèses

Teseo: 304330 DIALNET


Nowadays, the wine consumption has gone down, and this is probably due to fact that people are worried about alcoholic ingestion and other reasons, as the approval of the Spanish driving licence with points. Therefore, wineries have seen like their sales are decreasing in a 4% ratio. Because of this and other reasons new products, like free or low alcohol wines, without or reduced alcohol content, are being developed. In addition, there are some consumers loving wine because of its healthy properties but they don't take it due to several reasons (legal, health, religious, etc.) related with their opposition to alcoholic consumption. Anyway, market doesn't offer free or low alcohol wines with acceptable sensorial quality mainly due to the fact that the adequate technology is not available, to carry out the production at industrial scale. This is the reason why actually there are several research projects looking for a technology allowing obtain de-alcoholized wines with higher and acceptable quality. In this way, the research project entitled: Obtaining of wine derivates by means of new technologies, was raised in order to produce de-alcoholized wines with good sensorial quality using vacuum distillation in Spinning Cone Column (SCC). This project has been financed by CDTI (ref IDI-20070330), and the companies Bodegas y Viñedos de Murcia, S.L., and Bodegas y Viñedos Casa de la Ermita, S.L. (from Region of Murcia), and has been Directed by the Technical University of Cartagena and University of Murcia. In this thesis, which is included within aforementioned research project, thirty seven different wines from seventeen grape varieties have been studying. Thirteen of them are from DO Jumilla (Tintorera, Petit Verdot, Garnacha, Syrah, Monastrell, Monastrell condomina, Tempranillo, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Caracol serrano, Chardonnay, Macabeo, Airén), two of them are from DO Madrid (Malvar and Garnacha), one from DO Málaga (Moscatel romano), three of them from DO La Mancha (Chardonnay, Macabeo and Airén), one of them from DO La Mancha (Chardonnay, Macabeo and Airén), one of them from DO Alicante (Bobal) and the last one from DO Montilla-Moriles (Pedro Ximénez). All of wines have been submitted to de-alcoholization process using vacuum distillation in Spinning Cone Column. The influence of this process in wine quality has been evaluated. It has been determined: (i) physicochemical parameters (volatile acidity, total acidity, colour, sugars content, organic acids, and iron content); (ii) phenolic compounds content; (iii) soluble fibre; (iv) antioxidant activity; and (v) aromatic profile in the raw wine and the de-alcoholised wines. As well, the possibilities of sensory optimization of low-alcohol wine have been analyzed by means of trained and not trained taste panel. In addition, the microbial stabilization of the low alcohol wine has been studied. By other hand, the quality of de-alcoholised wines made with distillation in SCC has been compared to commercial de-alcoholised wines produced by other technologies (other distillation techniques and reverse osmosis). The physicochemical parameters (volatile acidity, total acidity, colour, sugars content, organic acids, iron content), nutraceutic substances (phenolic compounds and soluble fibre), antioxidant activity and aromatic profile were determined. Commercial de-alcoholised wines from different world zones were chosen: France (Rouge 0.2%, Rose 0.2%, Blanch 0.2%, Sensuelle, Irresistible Chardonnay, Tendre, from Bonne Nouvelle mark; white, rose and red wine, from Pol Vignan mark; white and red wine and sparkling wine from La Cotê de Vincent winery), Switzerland (Tendance, rose and white wine), Germany (Zero, white and red wine), USA (Ariel, white and red wine, Fre, white and red wine and red Carl Jung wine), and finally, from Spain (Vega Verde, white and rose wine). The following results were obtained: Distillation process in Spinning Cone Column produces a concentration effect in the phenolic compounds content of wine, in gallic acid, (-)-epicatechins, (+)-catechins, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, myricetin and malvidin-3-glucoside. Spanish wines de-alcoholised by SCC present higher resveratrol content and less % of DPPH¿remaining than commercial de-alcoholised wines from other origin and produced by other de-alcoholisation technologies. It is shown that commercial de-alcoholised wines by reverse osmosis have less soluble fibre than de-alcoholised wines by SCC (commercials and Spanish), in all cases and for the same grape variety. Resveratrol content seems to be negatively affected in de-alcoholised wines by reverse osmosis. It is observed, in de-alcoholised red wines, that the overall aromatic intensity decreases if aromatic extraction ratio increases. The higher the ratio of aromatic extraction, the lower the aromatic intensity. The best conditions for the aromas extraction in red wine are 0,6 % of aromatic extraction ratio, and SCC raw wine flow of 900 L/h (in aromatic separation phase), producing an aromatic stream with 67,8 % (v/v) of ethanol, aromatic intensity of 204,39 and 83,64 % of recovered aromatic peaks; and 1,5% of aromatic extraction ratio, raw wine flow of 700 L/h, producing an aromatic fraction with 47,4 % of ethanol, and an aromatic intensity of 66,18, which implies 97,27 % of recovered aromatic peaks. Yeast isolated from wine had some resistance to preservatives like potassium sorbate or sodium meta-bisulphite, obtaining a CMB greater than the legally allowable concentrations for these preservatives. A mixture of 200 ppm of potassium sorbate, 40 ppm of free sulphur dioxide and 200 ppm of DMDC (Velcorin) keep the microbial stability of low alcohol wine without organoleptic changes (taste and flavor). Sensorial analysis, evaluated by means no professional tasters, showed that 41,94% of them preferred wine of low alcoholic content comparing to traditional wine.